Not Advice, But Fact

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Too, whenever you file a case, you need to do everything, as if you plan to appeal. Every case goes to appeal, unless it is so shitty a case that it don’t warrant an appeal. Everything you do in your case should prepare for an easy appeal, you have to be diligent, as if you are the one being sued, and you have to do plenty of discovery if you want anything from the opposing party, and the most important thing, is you have to follow the Rules of Civil Procedure, Uniform Superior Court Rules, the Court’s Rules and all Orders.
If any of the above things have not been followed to a “t” then you have made it hard for yourself, and will most likely loose the case. If you have planned to appeal, which should always be done, then it will be easier and less costly to appeal.

Damn, that’s good, I am going to post.

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Over 17,000 Products Potentially Impacted By Coronavirus

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Disruption Escalates: Proctor And Gamble Says Over 17,000 Products Potentially Impacted By Coronavirus
Profile picture for user Tyler Durden
by Tyler Durden
Mon, 02/24/2020 – 21:10
https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/disruption-escalates-proctor-and-gamble-says-over-17000-products-potentially-impacted

While mom and dad on Main St. still aren’t getting the dire warning that the coronavirus has been offering up to Asia and the rest of the Eastern world over the last several weeks, perhaps a lightbulb will finally go off when Jane Q. Public heads to the grocery store and is unable to buy shampoo and toothpaste.

Proctor and Gamble, one of the world’s biggest “everyday product” manufacturers, has now officially warned that 17,600 of its products could be affected and disrupted by the coronavirus. The company’s CFO, Jon Moeller, said at a recent conference that P&G used 387 suppliers across China, shipping more than 9,000 materials, according to CIPS.org.

Moeller said: “Each of these suppliers faces their own challenges in resuming operations.”

And it’s not just everyday consumer goods that are going to feel the impact of the virus.
Smartphones and cars are so far among the consumer products that have been hardest hit from the virus. In fact, according to TrendForce, “forecasts for product shipments from China for the first quarter of 2020 had been slashed, by 16% for smartwatches (to 12.1m units), 12.3% for notebooks (30.7m units) and 10.4% for smartphones (275m units). Cars have dropped 8.1% (19.3m units).”

Their report states: “The outbreak has made a relatively high impact on the smartphone industry because the smartphone supply chain is highly labor-intensive. Although automakers can compensate for material shortage through overseas factories, the process of capacity expansion and shipping of goods is still expected to create gaps in the overall manufacturing process.”

A separate coronavirus analysis by Mintec says that “Chinese demand for copper (it has hitherto been responsible for consuming half the world’s output), will fall by 500,000 tonnes this year, and falls in demand have already impacted prices. From December to January the price of copper fell 9.6%.”

The report notes: “Millions of people have been affected by the travel lockdown in Hubei province, the centre of the outbreak. This has been responsible for a glut of jet fuel and diesel on global markets at a time when petroleum supplies were already abundant.”

Other products that have been negatively affected so far include pork, which is up 11% this month, chicken, garlic and dried ginger.

Product supply chain issues could eventually compound hysteria at supermarkets if coronavirus becomes widespread in western countries. Northern Italy, which has seen a small outbreak of coronavirus cases over the last 48 hours, is already experiencing long lines and sold out store shelves.

THE SHOCKING TRUTH ABOUT THE CORONAVIRUS IS SLOWLY BUT SURELY STARTING TO EMERGE Right now this outbreak is getting worse with each passing day

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Michael Snyder | End Of The American Dream – FEBRUARY 4, 2020

The Shocking Truth About The Coronavirus Is Slowly But Surely Starting To Emerge
IMAGE CREDITS: XIAO YIJIU/XINHUA VIA GETTY.

Initially, a lot of people were trying to convince us that this mysterious new coronavirus was not much of a threat.

Those people have now been proven wrong, and the number of cases continues to escalate at a staggering rate.

We should still hope that the measures that are being taken to reduce the spread of the virus will work, because nobody should want to see this develop into a full-blown worldwide pandemic.

But at this point it has become clear that this outbreak is not going to be easy to control.

The virus spreads very easily from person to person, it can survive for up to five days on surfaces, it has an incubation period of up to 14 days, and people can spread it even if they aren’t showing any symptoms at all.

blob:https://banned.video/b1863256-bbfb-4e15-b3a8-d8137b7f85ad

Alex Jones remotes in to the show from the road to expose the potential for the coronavirus release to bring down the globalist corporate structure.

That makes this an exceedingly dangerous virus, and we will be talking about this crisis for a long time to come.

The best time to stop an outbreak is when the number of cases is still very small, but we are already past that point.

In fact, the number of confirmed cases has more than quadrupled over the last week alone. The following comes from NPR…

China says it has more than 20,000 confirmed cases of the Wuhan coronavirus, representing a huge leap from the 4,400 cases reported as of last week. Chinese health officials said Monday morning that 2,829 new cases had been diagnosed in the previous 24 hours alone.

Outside of mainland China, nine countries or regions are reporting double-digit cases of the coronavirus, led by Japan with 20, according to a global dashboard created by the Johns Hopkins Whiting School of Engineering.

Even more alarming is the dramatic spike in “suspected cases” that we have been witnessing. At this point, China has 171,329 cases “under observation”, and it is inevitable that many of them will eventually become “confirmed cases” in the days ahead.

Here in the United States, the number of victims is now in double digits, and we just learned that a second case of human to human transmission inside this country has been confirmed by the CDC…

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on Monday confirmed the second person-to-person transmission of novel coronavirus in the U.S., marking the tenth and eleventh cases of the pneumonia-like illness in the country.

The two cases occurred in a husband and wife in California, said Nancy Messonnier, the director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, which is a part of the CDC, during a Monday telebriefing.

During the very early days of this outbreak we were told that it was very unlikely that this virus could be transmitted from human to human.

But now we know that those that have been infected can spread it to others very easily.

And up until just recently we were told that it was very unlikely that you can get this virus by touching a random surface, but now it has been announced that this virus “can survive for five days maximum on smooth surfaces under suitable circumstances”…

According to the Global Times, new ways of transmitting the coronavirus have been reported, and virus nucleic acid has been detected outside human bodies, sparking public fears that the virus could be transmitted in unknown and undetected ways. Concerns emerged after scientists found coronavirus nucleic acid on the doorknob of a confirmed Guangzhou-based patient’s house, the first case of novel coronavirus detected outside the human body, Guangzhou Daily reported Monday. The finding was confirmed by China’s Health Commission, which said on Monday that the coronavirus can survive for five days maximum on smooth surfaces under suitable circumstances.

That would mean that mobile phone screens, computer keyboards, faucets and other household objects may indirectly transmit the virus, experts said.

If the coronavirus starts spreading like wildfire in the United States, people are going to be afraid to touch anything while they are out in public.

And many people will not want to venture out in public at all.

We better hope that authorities can keep the number of U.S. cases very low, because this has the potential to set off societal panic on a very large scale.

Thankfully the Trump administration has taken bold action in recent days, but the Chinese are accusing our leaders of spreading panic…

Washington has “unceasingly manufactured and spread panic,” Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said, noting that the World Health Organization had advised against trade and travel restrictions, according to Reuters.

“It is precisely developed countries like the United States with strong epidemic prevention capabilities and facilities that have taken the lead in imposing excessive restrictions contrary to WHO recommendations,” she added, saying countries should make reasoned and science-based judgments.

Really?

Are we supposed to just continue to allow people to fly directly from China to major cities all over our country when people are literally dropping dead on the streets of Wuhan?

The latest video from China that has created a major sensation on social media allegedly shows a pile of eight dead bodies in body bags in a bus outside of a hospital in Wuhan. Unfortunately, Chinese authorities decided to arrest the whistleblower that took the video…

A whistleblower has allegedly been arrested in China after secretly filming ‘piles of body bags at a hospital in coronavirus-stricken Wuhan’.

Shocking footage – which MailOnline has been unable to verify – appears to show eight bodies in a bus outside the locked-down city’s Number Three hospital.

The recorder also claims he has seen more bodies inside waiting to be transferred.

If there are this many dead bodies at just one hospital, that would seem to indicate that the official death toll figures that we are being given each day by Chinese officials are way too low.

With each passing day, it is becoming more obvious that this is a very dangerous virus. And as Mike Adams has brilliantly documented, there is now a tremendous amount of evidence that this virus did not come into existence by accident.

Perhaps that is why the Chinese have taken the unprecedented step of locking down cities with a combined population of more than 50 million people, and perhaps that is why they are also spraying down the streets of those cities with disinfectant…

Millions of Chinese people have been ordered to stay in their homes tonight as health bosses try to disinfect an entire city ravaged by coronavirus.

Trucks will drive around spraying disinfectant through the streets of Huangshi, a city of 2.7 million in Hubei province that neighbours the outbreak’s epicentre, Wuhan.

They will target roads, shops, public parks, rubbish bins, public toilets, markets, supermarkets, hospitals, schools, buses, taxis and office buildings while the streets are empty.

If this virus was only about as dangerous as a common flu, the Chinese would not be doing this.

Global events were already starting to accelerate coming into this year, and now this coronavirus outbreak threatens to create a horrific worldwide crisis.

But we aren’t there just yet.

Hopefully the steps that governments around the world are currently taking will help to contain the spread of this disease.

But right now this outbreak is getting worse with each passing day, and it certainly isn’t going to take much to set off a major wave of panic.

By the way, people who know what’s coming are taking advantage of our healthy & delicious storable food!

New vaccines will permanently alter your DNA

New vaccines will permanently alter your DNA


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New vaccines will permanently alter your DNA
Feb 6
by Jon Rappoport
February 6, 2020

I repost this story now because, in the rush to develop a vaccine against the China coronavirus in the next 90 days, public health officials are mentioning several experimental technologies—never before released openly for public use. (China coronavirus archive here.)

One of those technologies is: DNA insertion.

The reference is the New York Times, 3/10/15, “Protection Without a Vaccine.” It describes the frontier of research. Here are key quotes that illustrate the use of synthetic genes to “protect against disease,” while changing the genetic makeup of humans. This is not science fiction:

“By delivering synthetic genes into the muscles of the [experimental] monkeys, the scientists are essentially re-engineering the animals to resist disease.”

“’The sky’s the limit,’ said Michael Farzan, an immunologist at Scripps and lead author of the new study.”

“The first human trial based on this strategy — called immunoprophylaxis by gene transfer, or I.G.T. — is underway, and several new ones are planned.” [That was nearly five years ago.]

“I.G.T. is altogether different from traditional vaccination. It is instead a form of gene therapy. Scientists isolate the genes that produce powerful antibodies against certain diseases and then synthesize artificial versions. The genes are placed into viruses and injected into human tissue, usually muscle.”

Here is the punchline: “The viruses invade human cells with their DNA payloads, and the synthetic gene is incorporated into the recipient’s own DNA. If all goes well, the new genes instruct the cells to begin manufacturing powerful antibodies.”

Read that again: “the synthetic gene is incorporated into the recipient’s own DNA.”

Alteration of the human genetic makeup.

Not just a “visit.” Permanent residence.

The Times article taps Dr. David Baltimore for an opinion:

“Still, Dr. Baltimore says that he envisions that some people might be leery of a vaccination strategy that means altering their own DNA, even if it prevents a potentially fatal disease.”

Yes, some people might be leery. If they have two or three working brain cells.

This is genetic roulette with a loaded gun.

And the further implications are clear. Vaccines can be used as a cover for the injections of any and all genes, whose actual purpose is unannounced.

The emergence of this Frankenstein technology is paralleled by a shrill push to mandate vaccines, across the board, for both children and adults. The pressure and propaganda are planet-wide.

The freedom and the right to refuse vaccines has always been vital. It is more vital than ever now.

What does wall to wall propaganda about an “ominous epidemic” achieve? You have one answer. If it doesn’t immediately pop into your head, read this article again.

Weather warning: Earth could be hit by MINI ICE-AGE as Sun ‘hibernates’

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Weather warning: Earth could be hit by MINI ICE-AGE as Sun ‘hibernates’
EARTH could be braced for a ‘mini ICE-AGE’ as experts warn a solar minimum could last until the 2050s.
https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/1237178/weather-warning-ice-age-earth-sun-hibernates-solar-minimum-long-range-forecast
By SEAN MARTIN
PUBLISHED: 00:01, Tue, Feb 4, 2020 | UPDATED: 00:03, Tue, Feb 4, 2020

Sunspot activity on the surface of the Sun follows a well-known but little understood 11 year cycle. Activity rises and falls creating the so-called solar maximum and then solar minimum. During a solar maximum, the Sun is more powerful and is littered with sunspots.

Space weather warning: Earth being SLAMMED by 500KM/S solar winds
Conversely when the Sun enters a solar minimum – which it did about two years ago – energy from our host star begins to lessen.

However, one expert has warned that the Sun will enter a period of “hibernation” this year, in what as known as a Grand Solar Minimum (GSM).

Prof Valentina Zharkova, from the department of mathematics, physics and electrical engineering at Northumbria University, warned this could cause global temperatures to drop by one degrees Celsius.

While that sounds like an insignificant drop, it could have major ramifications for the planet, including a slow down in agricultural production.

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Weather warning: Earth could be hit by MINI ICE-AGE as Sun ‘hibernates’ (Image: GETTY)

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The Sun has entered a period of low activity (Image: GETTY)

The expert added the Sun’s hibernation period could last for three decades, which will lead to wetter and colder summers.

Prof Zharkova told The Sun: “The Sun is approaching a hibernation period.

“Less sunspots will be formed on the solar surface and thus less energy and radiation will be emitted towards the planets and the Earth.”

“The reduction in temperature will result in cold weathers on Earth, wet and cold summers, cold and wet winters.”

“We will possibly get big frosts as is happening now in Canada where they see [temperatures] of -50C.

READ MORE:Sunspots “will bring down temperatures for decades” says report

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Earth could enter a period of prolonged cooling (Image: GETTY)

The last GSM, which comes around roughly every 400 years, came in the 17th century.

Research produced by NASA indicated during this last prolonged solar minimum the cooling temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere were indeed exacerbated by that Maunder minimum.

In 2006, NASA said: “From 1650 to 1710, temperatures across much of the Northern Hemisphere plunged when the Sun entered a quiet phase now called the Maunder Minimum.

DON’T MISS
NASA Detects Solar Flare Pulses

Solar explosion more powerful than 20 atomic bombs took place: Analysis

Sunspot Explosion[COMMENT]

ICE AGE
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Temperatures could cool globally by 1C (Image: GETTY)
“During this period, very few sunspots appeared on the surface of the Sun, and the overall brightness of the Sun decreased slightly.

“Already in the midst of a colder-than-average period called the Little Ice Age, Europe and North America went into a deep freeze: alpine glaciers extended over valley farmland; sea ice crept south from the Arctic; and the famous canals in the Netherlands froze regularly—an event that is rare today.”

During this period, temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere on land and in the winter were reportedly 1.3C lower than yesterday leading to shorter seasons and ultimately food shortages in what NASA described as a “little Ice Age”.

Prof Zharkova said: “We can only hope that the mini ice age will not be as severe as it was during the Maunder Minimum.

POLES
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The poles are melting (Image: GETTY)

“So it could lead to a food deficit for people and animals, as we seen in the past couple of years when the snow in Spain and Greece in April and May demolished they veggie fields, and the UK had a deficit of broccoli, and other fruits and veggies.”

However, other experts disagree with Prof Zharkova’s theory, stating any cooling effect will be “vastly offset” by climate change.

Solar scientist Mathew Owens said: “Thus there will probably be no detectable effect on global climate.”

Shoebill Stork: Ultimate Guide To The Fantastic Shoebill Bird! shoebill storkBy © Hans Hillewaert, CC BY-SA 3.0,

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(By © Hans Hillewaert, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11389155)

Shoebill Stork: Ultimate Guide To The Fantastic Shoebill Bird!
shoebill storkBy © Hans Hillewaert, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11389155

Shoebill Stork: Ultimate Guide To The Fantastic Shoebill Bird!

The shoebill is a large species of bird that has a distinctive bill shape unlike any other. This type of bird can be found in Africa and mainly lives in swamps. Although the shoebill bird looks like a stork, it’s not exactly the same thing as a stork, and scientists have been a little confused about how to classify it for some time. These days, it is listed as part of the Pelicaniformes order, but it hasn’t always been. The shoebill stork is also sometimes called “whalehead,” although this is much less common a term than the more widely-used shoebill.
What is a shoebill exactly?

Shoebills are ancient birds that have been recognized by humans all the way back to the time of ancient Egypt. The shoebill was mislabeled as a stork for a long time, but was eventually relocated to the pelican group and is also considered to be somewhat similar to a heron. Shoebill birds lay eggs that are similar to that of a pelican and also share some DNA with pelicans.

The shoebill usually comes in between 40 and 50 inches, although it may be slightly larger than this depending on the individual bird. Male shoebill birds usually weigh around 12 pounds and are a little bit heavier than female shoebills, but not by much. All shoebill birds have massive spoon-like bills and feature gray plumage that is brown when they’re younger. They have a large wingspan meant for soaring and short necks, unlike their stork and pelican relatives. Although their body and wings are shaped somewhat like a condor, shoebills are not related to this type of bird.
Shoebill: Quick Info

Shoebill’s average size is 40-50 inches.
Shoebill’s average weight is 12 lbs (male shoebills weigh more than female shoebills).
Shoebills have massive, powerful spoon-like bills .
Shoebills have gray plumage (it starts out brown then turns gray as shoebills age).
Shoebills have a large wingspan.
Shoebills have a short neck (unlike their pelican relatives).

shoebill birdBy su neko – Shoebill ~ハシビロコウ~, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1952313

Shoebills use their massive, powerful bills to kill and eat their prey, which is usually fish. They may also eat some rodents as well as turtles and smaller birds, but this is not very common. Shoebills clatter their bills to communicate with one another, but may also rarely make mooing sounds as a form of communication as well.
Shoebill: Are they an endangered species?
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(By su neko – Shoebill ~ハシビロコウ~, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1952313)

Shoebills are not endangered… YET.

The shoebill is a vulnerable species. This means that, while the shoebill is not endangered yet, it is on its way to that point due to habitat destruction and hunting. Conservation efforts are in place to prevent the shoebill from reaching endangered classification.
What is its scientific name?

Shoebill’s scientific name = Balaeniceps Rex

The scientific name of the shoebill is Balaeniceps rex. The Balaeniceps genus comes from the family Balaenicipitidae, which includes only the shoebill and the hamerkop. The hamerkop is much smaller than a shoebill and doesn’t look very similar to the shoebill, despite being part of the same family.
Are there different species of shoebill?

Shoebills do not have different species.

There is only one type of shoebill, but there are two known prehistoric relatives of this type of bird. The first is called Goliathia and was found in Egypt, and the second is called Paludavis and was also found in Egpyt, but fossilized at a different time period. Despite the shoebill descending from both of these relatives, it does not have separate types now, and the shoebill doesn’t even come in more than one color.
Are there any animals the shoebill is related to?

Shoebills are closely related to pelicans.

The shoebill is very closely related to pelicans, which is why it is sometimes referred to as a shoebill pelican and is classified in the order Pelicaniformes. However, in the past, the shoebill was mis-categorized as belonging to the Ciconiformes order, which includes storks. The shoebill resembles a stork in its structure and shape, and this is why it is also sometimes referred to as the shoebill stork. Some scientists also feel that the shoebill is related to herons, and therefore it can also be known as a shoebill crane.
Shoebill: Earth’s Last Living Dinosaur?
shoebill craneBy nao-cha from Tokyo, Japan – Shoebill #2, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4037207

Humans have known about shoebills as long ago as ancient Egypt, when they are first referred to in written language. They did not receive a classification until the 1800s, however, when they become known to the West and specifically to Europe. It wasn’t until over a hundred years later that shoebills were reclassified. Today, scientists continue to study fossils and information about shoebills to get a better idea of what they are and how to understand them.

There’s a lot more to learn about shoebills, and this information has really only scratched the surface. Understanding these beautiful shoebill birds is important, and education about these creatures will help in conservation efforts and in preventing the shoebill bird from becoming endangered.

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(By nao-cha from Tokyo, Japan – Shoebill #2, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4037207)

Shoebills are not particularly harmful to humans and there are no confirmed cases of death due to these birds attacking humans, pets, or livestock. They may look scary and have big, intimidating bills, but those bills are only a cause for concern for fish and some small animals. It is important to work to preserve shoebill birds and their habitats so that shoebills can continue thriving in the years to come.

We hope you enjoyed this shoebill post! Learn more about shoebill stork and shoebills by exploring our site. Find more shoebill bird information about clattering, lungfish, mandible, clatter, iucn south sudan and don’t forget to please SHARE this page if you can! Come back again soon!

WHY GOVERNMENTS DISARM PEOPLE

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WHY GOVERNMENTS DISARM PEOPLE

https://www.nationallibertyalliance.org/indictment-consideration-1-16-20

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A LEAGUE OF EVIL – The following statistics were reported in the September 11th, 1999, issue of The Economist magazine, page 7, titled “A League of Evil.”[1]

1915-1917 Ottoman Turkey banned gun possession, and then targeted Armenians (mostly Christians) and killed 1-1.5 million people.
1929-1945 Soviet Union banned gun possession, and then targeted political opponents and farming communities, killing 20 million people.
1933-1945 Nazi Germany (and occupied Europe) banned gun possession, and then targeted political opponents, Jews, Gypsies and critics killing 20 million people.
1927-1949 Nationalist China banned private ownership of guns, and then targeted political opponents, army conscripts, and others, killing 10 million people.
1949-1952; 1957-1960; 1966-1976 Red China instituted the death penalty for supplying guns to “counter-revolutionary criminals” and anyone resisting any government program, and then targeted political opponents, killing 20-35 million people.
1960-1981 Guatemala banned gun possession, and then targeted Mayans, other Indians, and political enemies, killing 100,000-200,000 people.
1971-1979 Uganda registered gun owners, instituted warrantless searches, and then targeted Christians and political enemies, killing 300,000 people.
1975-1979 Cambodia registered gun owners and then targeted educated persons and political enemies, killing 2 million people.
1994 Rwanda registered gun owners and then targeted the Tutsi people killing over 800,000.
Unarmed people have no defense against a “demonical” government. In the 20th century alone, governments killed a total of 262 million civilians. – Nobel Peace Prize finalist R.J. Rummel in an update to statistics originally presented in his Death by Government, Transaction Publishers, 1994.

Who Are the Militia

George Mason[2], “I ask who are the militia? They consist now of the whole people, except a few public officers.” –

George Mason[3], “That a well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural and safe defense of a free state”

NYS Constitution Article XII Section 1: “The defense and protection of the state and of the United States is an obligation of all persons within the state. The legislature shall provide for the discharge of this obligation and for the maintenance and regulation of an organized militia.”

Richard Henry Lee[4], “A militia when properly formed is in fact the people themselves…and include, according to the past and general usage of the states, all men capable of bearing arms… To preserve liberty, it is essential that the whole body of the people always possess arms, and be taught alike, especially when young, how to use them.”

Richard Henry Lee[5], “No free government was ever founded, or ever preserved its liberty, without uniting the characters of the citizen and soldier in those destined for the defense of the state…such area well-regulated militia, composed of the freeholders, citizen and husbandman, who take up arms to preserve their property, as individuals, and their rights as freemen.”

James Madison[6], “The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. A well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the best and most natural defense of a free country.”

George Washington[7], “A free people ought not only to be armed, but disciplined…”

Our Founding Fathers on the Second Amendment

If the People have no experience with arms, how can they defend themselves, their neighbors and our Nation if called upon?

George Washington[1], “The Constitution [is to] be never construed to authorize Congress to infringe the just liberty of the people of the United States, who are peaceable citizens, from keeping their own arms;

George Washington[2], “That no man should scruple, or hesitate a moment, to use arms in defense.”

John Adams[3], “A free people ought not only to be armed, but disciplined.”

Thomas Jefferson[4], “No free man shall ever be debarred the use of arms.”

Thomas Jefferson[5], “I prefer dangerous freedom over peaceful slavery.”

Thomas Jefferson[6], “What country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance? Let them take arms.”

Thomas Jefferson[7], “The laws that forbid the carrying of arms are laws of such a nature. They disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes…. Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man.”

Thomas Jefferson[8], “A strong body makes the mind strong. As to the species of exercises, I advise the gun. While this gives moderate exercise to the body, it gives boldness, enterprise and independence to the mind. Let your gun therefore be your constant companion of your walks.”

Thomas Jefferson[9], “The Constitution of most of our states (and of the United States) assert that all power is inherent in the people; that they may exercise it by themselves; that it is their right and duty to be at all times armed.”

Benjamin Franklin, “Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote!”

George Mason[10], “To disarm the people…[i]s the most effectual way to enslave them.”

Noah Webster[11], “Before a standing army can rule, the people must be disarmed, as they are in almost every country in Europe. The supreme power in America cannot enforce unjust laws by the sword; because the whole body of the people are armed, and constitute a force superior to any band of regular troops.”

Patrick Henry[12], “Guard with jealous attention the public liberty. Suspect everyone who approaches that jewel. Unfortunately, nothing will preserve it but downright force. Whenever you give up that force, you are ruined…. The great object is that every man be armed. Everyone who is able might have a gun.”

Patrick Henry[13], “Are we at last brought to such humiliating and debasing degradation that we cannot be trusted with arms for our defense? Where is the difference between having our arms in possession and under our direction, and having them under the management of Congress? If our defense be the real object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?”

St. George Tucker[14], “This may be considered as the true palladium of liberty…. The right of self-defense is the first law of nature: in most governments it has been the study of rulers to confine this right within the narrowest limits possible. Wherever standing armies are kept up, and the right of the people to keep and bear arms is, under any color or pretext whatsoever, prohibited, liberty, if not already annihilated, is on the brink of destruction.”

Thomas Paine[15], “The supposed quietude of a good man allures the ruffian; while on the other hand, arms, like law, discourage and keep the invader and the plunderer in awe, and preserve order in the world as well as property. The balance of power is the scale of peace. The same balance would be preserved were all the world destitute of arms, for all would be alike; but since some will not, others dare not lay them aside. And while a single nation refuses to lay them down, it is proper that all should keep them up. Horrid mischief would ensue were one-half the world deprived of the use of them; for while avarice and ambition have a place in the heart of man, the weak will become a prey to the strong. The history of every age and nation establishes these truths, and facts need but little arguments when they prove themselves.”

Samuel Adams[16], “And that the said Constitution be never construed to prevent the people of the United States, who are peaceable citizens, from keeping their own arms…”

Joseph Story[17], “The right of the citizens to keep and bear arms has justly been considered, as the palladium of the liberties of a republic; since it offers a strong moral check against the usurpation and arbitrary power of rulers; and will generally, even if these are successful in the first instance, enable the people to resist and triumph over them.”

Alexander Hamilton[18], “If the representatives of the people betray their constituents, there is then no resource left but in the exertion of that original right of self-defense which is paramount to all positive forms of government, and which against the usurpations of the national rulers, may be exerted with infinitely better prospect of success than against those of the rulers of an individual state.”

Tench Coxe[19], “As civil rulers, not having their duty to the people before them, may attempt to tyrannize, and as the military forces which must be occasionally raised to defend our country, might pervert their power to the injury of their fellow citizens, the people are confirmed by the article in their right to keep and bear their private arms.”

Tenche Coxe[20], “The militia of these free commonwealths, entitled and accustomed to their arms, when compared with any possible army, must be tremendous and irresistible. Who are the militia? Are they not ourselves? Is it feared, then, that we shall turn our arms each man against his own bosom. Congress have no power to disarm the militia. Their swords, and every other terrible implement of the soldier, are the birth-right of an American … the unlimited power of the sword is not in the hands of either the federal or state governments, but, where I trust in God it will ever remain, in the hands of the people.”

John Dickinson[21], “With hearts fortified with these animating reflections, we most solemnly, before God and the world, declare, that, exerting the utmost energy of those powers, which our beneficent Creator hath graciously bestowed upon us, the arms we have compelled by our enemies to assume, we will, in defiance of every hazard, with unabating firmness and perseverance employ for the preservation of our liberties; being with one mind resolved to die freemen rather than to live as slaves.”

Roger Sherman[22], “Conceived it to be the privilege of every citizen, and one of his most essential rights, to bear arms, and to resist every attack upon his liberty or property, by whomsoever made. The particular States, like private citizens, have a right to be armed, and to defend by force of arms, their rights, when invaded.”

Zachariah Johnson[23], “The people are not to be disarmed of their weapons. They are left in full possession of them.”

[1] George Washington, Debates of the Massachusetts Convention of February 6, 1788

[2] George Washington, letter to George Mason April 5th 1769

[3] John Adams, speech to US Congress January 8, 1790

[4] Thomas Jefferson, Virginia Constitution, Draft 1, 1776

[5] Thomas Jefferson, letter to James Madison, January 30, 1787

[6] Thomas Jefferson, letter to James Madison, December 20, 1787

[7] Thomas Jefferson, Commonplace Book (quoting 18th century criminologist Cesare Beccaria), 1774-1776

[8] Thomas Jefferson, letter to Peter Carr, August 19, 1785

[9] Thomas Jefferson, letter to to John Cartwright, 5 June 1824

[10] George Mason, The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, June 14, 1788

[11] Noah Webster, An Examination of the Leading Principles of the Federal Constitution, October 10, 1787

[12] Patrick Henry, Speech to the Virginia Ratifying Convention, June 5, 1778

[13] Patrick Henry, Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution

[14] St. George Tucker, Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England, 1803

[15] Thomas Paine, “Thoughts on Defensive War” in Pennsylvania Magazine, July 1775

[16] Samuel Adams, Massachusetts Ratifying Convention, 1788

[17] Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, 1833

[18] Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 28

[19] Tench Coxe, Philadelphia Federal Gazette, June 18, 1789

[20] Tenche Coxe, The Pennsylvania Gazette, Feb. 20, 1788

[21] John Dickinson, July 6, 1775

[22] Roger Sherman, Debates on 1790 Militia Act

[23] Zachariah Johnson, Virginia Ratifying Convention, June 25, 1788

[1] Original source: Death by “Gun Control,” by Aaron Zelmen and Richard W. Stevens; Mazel Freedom Press, Inc; January 1, 2001.

[2] George Mason, Address to the Virginia Ratifying Convention, June 4, 1788

[3] George Mason, Virginia Declaration of Rights, June 12 1776

[4] Richard Henry Lee, Federal Farmer No. 18, January 25, 1788

[5] Richard Henry Lee, Gazette (Charleston), September 8 1788

[6] James Madison, I Annals of Congress 434, June 8, 1789

[7] George Washington, First Annual Address, to both House of Congress, January 8, 1790

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