Welcome to EbolaReady.com, the Ultimate Guide to Preparing
for and Surviving an Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak
Last Update – Oct 18, 2014 – 2:04 PM EST
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ABOUT EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (recently referred to as Ebola Virus Disease, so just EVD) is one of numerous Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. It is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees). Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered (but not confirmed) to be the natural host of the Ebola virus. EVD is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. There are five known species of Ebola virus and one known species of the Marburg virus. The Ebola virus species that is currently the source of the outbreak in West Africa is called Zaire Ebolavirus.
Since the first cases of Ebola HF in the current West Africa outbreak were detected in March, 2014, between 50-90% of those who become infected die. And the deaths are particularly gruesome including bleeding from the eyes, internal bleeding, major organ failure, grotesque rashes and more. Click HERE for a terrifying, detailed description of the physical effects of Ebola.
HOW IS EBOLA TRANSMITTED?
Contact w/Bodily Fluids – Public health authorities such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization currently state that Ebola is contracted by coming in contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes in, for example, the eyes, nose, or mouth) with an infected individual’s blood or body fluids, including but not limited to urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, semen and fecal material.
Aerosol / Airborne Transmission – Evidence suggests public health officials are intentionally crafting language so as to minimize public concerns regarding other possible means of transmission. For instance, though public health authorities publicly state that Ebola is not AIRBORNE, there are a multitude of published, peer reviewed studies firmly establishing transmission of the Ebola virus, as with many other contagions, via AEROSOLS, such as saliva particles and droplets released via coughs and sneezes.
CDC Cough and Sneeze Plume
The general difference between AIRBORNE and AEROSOL transmission rests, in large part, on the size of the particles and thus, how long they can remain suspended in the air.
Until recently both the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the Public Health Agency of Canada directly warned about possible AIRBORNE transmission of the Ebola virus. Beginning in August 2014 all such references were scrubbed from publicly available agency information resources.
[ EXAMPLE 1: ] – Sometime between August 2-4, 2014 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control CHANGED THE LANGUAGE of their guidance document entitled, Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients with Known or Suspected Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in U.S. Hospitals, to remove any reference to AIRBORNE transmission. Thankfully the WayBack Machine archived the old version.
[ EXAMPLE 2: ] – Sometime between Oct 1-2, the Public Health Agency of Canada actually CHANGED THE LANGUAGE of their Pathogen Safety Data Sheet on Ebola to to remove references to AIRBORNE transmission, including the removal of citations to key scientific literature. Thankfully the WayBack Machine archived the old version.
NEW VERSION ( Link )
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON AIRBORNE / AEROSOL TRANSMISSION
In August, 2014 Dr. Barbara Knust of the CDC revealed in a conference call with clinicians from across the U.S. that there is a risk of Ebola transmission even through “casual contact,” which she defined “to be within three feet of a patient for a prolonged period of time.” [Citation 1]
“But the kind of exposures that we consider to be high risk would be things such as percutaneous or mucous membrane exposure to body fluids of the symptomatic Ebola virus patient, providing direct care of a symptomatic patient or exposure to blood and body fluids without standard bio safety precautions, doing processing of body fluids of confirmed patients without appropriate PPE, or standard bio safety precautions and participation in funeral rites which include direct exposure to human remains in the geographic area where an outbreak is occurring without appropriate PPE.
Low risk exposures [but a risk none the less] include having casual contact with an EVD patient either by being a household member or providing patient care that is just a casual contact kind of a situation rather than direct exposure to blood and body fluid without PPE.
And casual contact we’re defining in here to be within three feet of a patient for a prolonged period of time.”
ASK YOURSELF THIS QUESTION: If a CDC scientist states casual contact (within 3 feet) of an infected individual poses a risk of exposure, what does it mean for airline passengers?
In Sept., 2014 the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) published a position paper urging healthcare workers to employ advanced personal protective equipment because of the threat of aerosol transmission: [Citation 2]
“We believe there is scientific and epidemiologic evidence that Ebola virus has the potential to be transmitted via infectious aerosol particles both near and at a distance from infected patients, which means that healthcare workers should be wearing respirators, not facemasks.”
In 2012 research published in the scientific journal Nature demonstrated the ability of the the virus to pass between pigs and non-human primates without direct contact. [Citation 3]
“In 2009, Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV detected in swine with indicated transmission to humans. In-contact transmission of Zaire-EBOV (ZEBOV) between pigs was demonstrated experimentally. Here we show ZEBOV transmission from pigs to cynomolgus macaques without direct contact. Interestingly, transmission between macaques in similar housing conditions was never observed. Piglets inoculated oro-nasally with ZEBOV were transferred to the room housing macaques in an open inaccessible cage system. All macaques became infected. Infectious virus was detected in oro-nasal swabs of piglets, and in blood, swabs, and tissues of macaques. This is the first report of experimental interspecies virus transmission, with the macaques also used as a human surrogate.”
In 2006 a press release published by the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), specifically states that Ebola is infectious by aerosol: [Citation 4]
“Ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates as high as 80 percent in humans. The virus, which is infectious by aerosol (although more commonly spread through blood and bodily fluids of infected patients), is of concern both as a global health threat and a potential agent of biological warfare or terrorism. Currently there are no available vaccines or therapies.”
In 2006 the scientific journal PLoS Pathogens carried a peer reviewed paper stating “…the pathogen is extremely deadly and highly infectious by aerosol…”: [Citation 5]
“Although the worst outbreaks have resulted in only several hundred deaths worldwide [3–6], the filoviruses are considered a significant global health threat, because as the reservoir remains unknown, the pathogen is extremely deadly and highly infectious by aerosol, and there is anecdotal evidence that the use of both MARV and EBOV were explored as potential biowarfare agents in the offensive program of the former Soviet Union [7–10].”
In 2005 guidance published by the U.S. Army on medical management of biological casualities specifically states that Ebola may be particularly prone to transmission via aerosols. [Citation 6]
“Lassa, CCHF, Ebola, and Marburg viruses may be particularly prone to aerosol nosocomial spread. In several instances, secondary infections among contacts and medical personnel without direct body fluid exposure are well documented. These instances suggest a rare phenomenon of aerosol transmission of infection. Therefore, when a VHF is suspected, additional infection control measures are indicated. The patient should be hospitalized in a private room with an adjoining anteroom for putting on and removing protective barriers, storage of supplies, and decontamination of laboratory specimen containers. A negative pressure isolation room with 6-12 air exchanges per hour is ideal for all VHF patients and is strongly advised for patients with significant cough, hemorrhage, or diarrhea. All persons entering the room should wear double gloves, eye protection and HEPA (N-95) masks or positive pressure air-purifying resperators.”
In 1995 research published in the International Journal of Experimental Pathology demonstrated fatal aerosol transmission of Ebola to monkeys with a little as 400 virus particles (plaque-forming units (PFU)). [Citation 7]
“The potential of aerogenic infection by Ebola virus was established by using a head-only exposure aerosol system. Virus-containing droplets of 0.8-1.2 microns were generated and administered into the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys via inhalation. Inhalation of viral doses as low as 400 plaque-forming units of virus caused a rapidly fatal disease in 4-5 days. … Demonstration of fatal aerosol transmission of this virus in monkeys reinforces the importance of taking appropriate precautions to prevent its potential aerosol transmission to humans.
In 1995 research published in the infectious diseasejournal Lancet demonstrated fatal aerosol transmission of Ebola between rhesus monkeys without any form of physical contact. [Citation 8]
“Secondary transmission of Ebola virus infection in humans is known to be caused by direct contact with infected patients or body fluids. We report transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to two of three control rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that did not have direct contact with experimentally inoculated monkeys held in the same room. The two control monkeys died from Ebola virus infections at 10 and 11 days after the last experimentally inoculated monkey had died. The most likely route of infection of the control monkeys was aerosol, oral or conjunctival exposure to virus-laden droplets secreted or excreted from the experimentally inoculated monkeys. These observations suggest approaches to the study of routes of transmission to and among humans.”
SUSTAINED SURFACE CONTAMINATION
Despite public pronouncements by the CDC, WHO and other public health personalities that the Ebola virus does not survive beyond a few HOURS on contaminated surfaces, published research in respected, peer reviewed scientific journals show that “viable” Ebola virus can in fact survive for multiple WEEKS on surfaces outside the body.
In 2010 research published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology demonstrated that two different strains of Ebola, including Ebola-Zaire which is at the heart of the current W. Africa outbreak, is able to survive for extended periods of time at low temperatures on plastic and glass surfaces as well as in liquids. [Citation 9]
“Our study has shown that Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV) and Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) can survive for long periods in different liquid media and can also be recovered from plastic and glass surfaces at low temperatures for over … 3 … weeks. The decay rates of ZEBOV and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) plus MARV within a dynamic aerosol were calculated. ZEBOV and MARV had similar decay rates, whilst REBOV showed significantly better survival within an aerosol.”
IS THERE A VACCINE?
NO. There are experimental drugs under development which have been tested on three individuals infected with Ebola. Two survived. As of the latest update to this site (October 8, 2014) there are no mass produced vaccines. Patients receive symptomatic treatment only.
USGOV AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE
On April 8, 2014 the Department of Defense informed Congress that JBAIDS hemorrhagic fever testing systems had been deployed to National Guard units of all 50 States.
On July 31, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued a Level 3 Travel Warning advising U.S. citizens to avoid nonessential travel to the West African nations of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
On July 31, 2014 President Obama issued a new Executive Order with a revised list of quarantinable communicable diseases to include severe respiratory illnesses.
On Aug 1, 2014 Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization stated the Ebola outbreak “is moving faster than our efforts to control it,” and “If the situation continues to deteriorate, the consequences can be catastrophic in terms of lost lives but also severe socioeconomic disruption and a high risk of spread to other countries.”
On Aug 1, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued Ebola guidance to US Hospitals on Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients.
On Aug 3, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued Interim Guidance about Ebola Virus Infection for Airline Flight Crews, Cleaning Personnel, and Cargo Personnel
On Aug 6, 2014 it was announced that the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) moved its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to its highest activation level, an action it last took during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.
On Aug 7, 2014 Tom Frieden, Director of the US Centers for Disease Control, told Congress that Ebola’s spread to US is ‘inevitable.’
On Aug 15, 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the scale of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa had been “vastly underestimated” and “extraordinary measures” were needed to contain the disease.
On Aug 26, 2014 the Department of Homeland Security’s Office of the Inspector General issued a report stating that DHS is “ill-prepared” for combating a pandemic such as a global Ebola outbreak.
On Aug 28, 2014 The U.S. State Dept .warned U.S.citizens traveling abroad that they may be subject to increased screening procedures, forced quarantine or berestricted by foreign governments from traveling for up to 21 days in response to the outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease.
On Sept 12, 2014 Dr. Margaret Chan, Director General of the World Health Organization, stated that Ebola virus cases in West Africa are rising faster than the ability to contain them.
On Sept 14, 2014 President Obama described the Ebola outbreak as a national security threat to the United States and has ordered the deployment of 3000 U.S. soldiers to the region to assist in the setting up field hospitals and isolation units, to provide protection for medical staff as well as other tasks in an effort to help in the overall international response.
On Sept 15, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued a warning to all hospitals, clinics, doctors, infectious disease specialists and other medical professionals nationwide stating that “now is the time to prepare” for the eventual arrival of Ebola cases in the U.S..
On Sept 22, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued a new report and forecast indicating there is potential for 1.4 MILLION Ebola cases by January 20, 2015.
On Sept 24, 2014 it was reported that U.S. waste management companies are refusing to haul away Ebola-related hospital waste citing federal guidelines that require such materials to be handled in special packaging by people with hazardous materials training.
On Sept 30, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control confirmed the first case of Ebola in a patient diagnosed in a U.S. hospital.
On Oct 2, 2014 the UN’s Ebola Chief Warned the Virus Could Become Airborne.
These and other extraordinary statements, efforts and developments should be YOUR indicators that the W. Africa Ebola outbreak has U.S. and international health authorities particularly worried. They should also serve as indicators that now is the time to make some preparations of your own BEFORE there is a major national rush to do the same.
HOW CAN YOU AND YOUR FAMILY PREPARE?
It is imperative that you stay well informed. If the Ebola virus begins to circulate in the U.S. or via airlines serving the U.S. market, you will want to find out at the soonest opportunity so as to begin to manage your risk factors (social contact, travel plans, kids in school, etc…) and take appropriate measures for yourself and family. No doubt the World Health Organization (WHO), the CDC, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations will continue to provide information on the spread of the virus, availability of medications and travel advisories. You can find a list of excellent information sources further down this page.
Get your annual flu vaccination as early as possible. Many of the initial symptoms of Ebola are very similar to influenza (fever, nausea, muscle pain, headaches, etc..). While this will NOT protect you from the Ebola virus it will likely help keep you out of the medical system and thus reduce your chances of possibly falling under the purview of newly expanded list of quarantinable diseases which now includes severe acute respiratory syndromes (diseases that are associated with fever and signs and symptoms of pneumonia or other respiratory illness).
Get a pneumonia vaccine shot. Here again, while this will NOT protect you from the Ebola virus it will likely help keep you out of the medical system and thus reduce your chances of possibly falling under the purview of newly expanded list of quarantinable diseases which now includes severe acute respiratory syndromes (diseases that are associated with fever and signs and symptoms of pneumonia or other respiratory illness). This is particularly important for individuals 65 and older as well as those with chronic respiratory illnesses such as asthma, emphysema, severe allergies, etc..
Become a hand washing fanatic and stop touching your face. This is a powerful habit to get into as a defense against numerous diseases. In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, you should wash your hands several times a day with a good antimicrobial scrub. Additionally, it would be wise to carry an alcohol-based disinfectant, though this should not be a substitute for thoroughly washing your hands regularly under running water.
It is strongly recommended that airline travelers, including domestic passengers, become hyper sensitive about their proximity to those visibly ill during your trips. Given that hundreds of passengers from affected countries arrive in the U.S. daily from international locations, only to then diffuse into the domestic airline network, your increased, polite vigilance can only be a benefit to your overall safety. If they look sick, steer clear. This is not rude, just simple common sense.
In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, you would be infinitely wise to exercise social distancing. This might seem like a no-brainer, but the most effective way to prevent becoming infected by most communicable diseases is to avoid exposure to others who may be infected. As an infected individual is already contagious by the time symptoms appear, it is important that you stay aware and informed.
Familiarize yourself with guidance provided by the CDC and WHO for medical workers and airline staff (a comprehensive list is provided below). Their recommendations on how workers should protect themselves apply equally well for the general population. Though the protective measures in these guidance documents obviously run into the extreme, it should be simple to adjust them to your particular situation. Also be aware that this guidance WILL, FOR SURE, change regularly to accommodate new information and practices..
In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, be prepared to protect your breath with a respirator / mask. As indicated above, there is a body of evidence showing the Ebola virus is capable of airborne transmission via cough and sneeze plumes. As such, it is important to protect yourself from potentially inhaling the virus when in the presence of others. To this end, use only respirators labeled as “NIOSH certified,” “N95”, “N99” or “N100” (See Table Below) as these help protect against inhalation of very small particles. Follow the directions and make sure the masks are worn properly to eliminate entry of unfiltered air between the mask and the sides of the face. Inexpensive sources are provided below.
CDC / NIOSH Filter Class Table (click for full guidance document)
In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, be prepared to protect your hands. Wear medical grade disposable examination gloves. This will help protect you from possible contact with an infected individual or surfaces. These gloves are cheap enough that you should never have to reuse a pair. Wash your hands after careful removal. Inexpensive sources are provided below.
In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, be prepared to protect your eyes. There are ample scientific studies showing that communicable diseases can be contracted by getting aerosolized particles and droplets in one’s eyes. Glasses are not sufficient protection. A pair of inexpensive chemistry lab goggles provides ample protection. Inexpensive sources are provided below.
In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, be prepared to carefully dispose of any potentially contaminated materials properly. Gloves, masks or filters, tissues, etc.. should becarefully handled. Prepare a special container for such items OUTSIDE of your living environment. Consider them a potential biohazard.
Depending on your location, you may wish to consider your own burn can or burn pit.
REASON: Waste management companies are refusing to haul away the soiled sheets and virus-spattered protective gear associated with treating the disease, citing federal guidelines that require Ebola-related waste to be handled in special packaging by people with hazardous materials training.
Be mindful of the fact that in the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, there is the potential for disruption of basic services such as power, telephones, internet access, garbage pickup and more. If the service relies upon a human for upkeep or operation, it is subject to problems due to widespread employee absenteeism or death toll. This concept can also be extended to other areas we take for granted including gas stations, grocery stores, pharmacies, hospitals and more. This is why it is essential to be prepared PRIOR to an emergency taking hold.
In December, 2013, multiple Alaska Airlines flight crews were hit hard by influenza, resulting in flight cancellations.
In August 2014, both St. Joseph’s Catholic and John F. Kennedy Memorial hospitals in Liberia shut down after workers at both facilities abandoned their jobs following the deaths of many staff members.
While there is the perception that the American medical system is much better equipped to handle an outbreak, do not be deceived into complacency. Medical staff in America are just as susceptible to the virus as other geographic locations. In the event of an epidemic or pandemic situation, hospitals WILL be overwhelmed.
When medical staff begin becoming infected it is wise to presume that a certain percentage of the staff will NOT report to work. Further, as many nurses and support staff in the U.S. are unionized, there is also a HIGH probability that this will happen sooner rather than later into a public health emergency if the threats are sufficient.
THE SIGNS ARE ALREADY HERE
In September 2014, approximately 1000 unionized nurses protested in the streets of Las Vegas over the fact that U.S. hospitals are not ready to handle a major Ebola outbreak.
In October 2014, America’s largest union and professional association of registered nurses stated that American hospitals are still not communicating policies to health care workers regarding how to handle potential Ebola patients.
According to National Nurses United co-president Deborah Burger:
“As has been shown in Dallas, they are not prepared. […] We’re still not clear on why our hospitals are dragging their feet. […] We think there may be a bit of denial involved in this.”
Additional preparedness steps you should realistically already have completed for other emergency situations:
• Stock up on essential medications (insulin, BP meds, Mom’s Xanax, etc…).
• Stock up on necessities such as food and water. Prepare at least a two month supply. The focus should be on nonperishable foods and meals that do not require cooking.
• Plan for the possibility that banks will be closed or ATMs empty or out of service. As such, if you learn of a potential epidemic or pandemic situation forming, it is wise to keep a supply of cash on hand.
• Discuss emergency preparations with your family. Make a plan so that children will know what to do and where to go if you are incapacitated or killed, or if family members cannot communicate with each other. These are drastic measures, but unfortunately necessary.
If you think you or a member of your family is becoming ill in a epidemic / pandemic situation, it is important that you NOT IMMEDIATELY RUSH TO THE HOSPITAL. The simple reality is that you will likely encounter desperate throngs of other sick individuals doing the exact same thing. The chances are also very good that hospitals and other medical facilities will already be overwhelmed.
Attempt to call the hospital emergency room BEFORE setting out to find medical attention. FOLLOW THEIR GUIDANCE TO THE LETTER.
IN AN EPIDEMIC / PANDEMIC SITUATION, IF EBOLA IS SUSPECTED IT IS ESSENTIAL YOU NOT HANDLE / TOUCH / KISS / CUDDLE OR OTHERWISE HAVE PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH THE SICK INDIVIDUAL. ADDITIONALLY, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE SICK INDIVIDUAL BE ISOLATED, PREFERABLY OUTSIDE OF YOUR HOME SO THAT NO ONE ELSE IS INFECTED OR THE ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATED.
For any clear thinking adult, this reason alone should be motivation to follow the preparedness guidance in this document BEFORE a pandemic scenario is upon us. Additionally, if the government is currently allocating significant amounts of capital and other resources to preparing for a possible epidemic / pandemic, this should be your signal to make some preparations of your own.
The lives of yourself and family could hang in the balance.
An infectious disease study published by the Centers for Disease Control in 2005 provides a detailed analysis of an earlier Ebola outbreak during which dogs were tested for the presence of Ebola antibodies (the presence of which would indicate infection by the virus). Ebola virus antibodies WERE detected….
While symptoms DID NOT develop in any of these highly exposed animals during the outbreak, “they may excrete infectious viral particles in urine, feces, and saliva for a short period before virus clearance, as has observed experimentally in other animals. Given the frequency of contact between humans and domestic dogs, canine Ebola infection must be considered as a potential risk factor for human infection and virus spread. Human infection could occur through licking, biting, or grooming. Asymptomatically infected dogs could be a potential source of human Ebola outbreaks and of virus spread during human outbreaks, which could explain some epidemiologically unrelated human cases.”
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
Given the result of this study, it is clear that in the event of an epidemic or pandemic situation, dogs may present a significant risk to their owners and others if they become exposed to the virus. Pet owners, and particular, dog owners, must be extremely vigilant. Keep an eye on your dogs when outside. Limit their movement where appropriate. Contact with a sick individual could result in the spread of the virus in your home.
Similarly, if someone in your home becomes sick, this CDC report clearly shows that dogs could spread the virus to other family members, while not becoming sick themselves…
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPTMENT (PPE) USE VIDEOS
While these videos do not specifically deal with use of PPEs in an infectious Ebola setting, they
do provide an excellent overview of the general use of these items.
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AFFORDABLE PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS SUPPLIES
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Hibiclens Medical Grade Skin Cleanser for killng the H7N9 virus.
Chlorhexidine Gluconate Medical Grade Skin Cleanser
One of the best risk mitigation steps you can take is to acquire a medical grade skin cleanser, as well as surface cleanser.
Of these, one of the gold standards in hospitals and other clinical settings is Chlorhexidine Gluconate, which is sold under the product name HIBICLENS.
The product is intended for use as a surgical scrub, as a health-care personnel hand wash, a patient pre-operative skin preparation and a skin wound cleanser. The antimicrobial cleaner bonds to the skin to create a persistent antimicrobial effect and protective germ-killing field against a wide range of microorganisms.
Of these, the application leader in hospitals and clinical settings is Sporicidin® Disinfectant Solution.
Sporicidin® is an EPA-registered gold-standard disinfectant for a varity of surfaces which provides continuous residual antimicrobial activity for up to 6 months. The solution is non-corrosive to surfaces including plastics, latex, vinyl, glass, wood, metal, and porcelain. Sporicidin® Disinfectant Solution is FDA 510(k) cleared for hospital use and compliant with OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standards (29 CFR 1910.1030). Sporicidin® has been used in hospital, medical and dental environments since 1978 and provides 100% kill of disease and odor-causing organisms. STRONGLY RECOMMENDED.
N95 masks for protection from airborne bird flu infection.
NIOSH-Approved N95 Particulate Mask / Respirators
An ESSENTIAL risk countermeasure for reducing the spread of Ebola, influenza and other contagions, not only for caregivers, but also for the sick, is to acquire a supply of particle masks. The N95 respirator is the most common particulate filtering face piece respirator and will be impossible to find during an epidemic / pandemic situation.
This product filters at least 95% of airborne particles but is NOT resistant to oil. These are (currently) inexpensive and a critical element to one’s preparedness supplies. There are an abundance of scholarly studies demonstrating the effectiveness of N95 filters in reducing the spread of viruses.
P100 masks and respirators for protection from airborne bird flu infection.
NIOSH-Approved P100 Particulate Mask / Respirators
Similar to the N95, P100 rated filters provide 99.97% filter efficiency against viruses of all types, including Ebola, influenza and other contagions, as well as certain dusts, fumes, mists and radionuclides. P100 are also oil resistant. The masks are well suited for those who want NIOSHs highest rated filtration efficiency. Here again, these masks are (currently) inexpensive and a critical element to one’s pandemic preparedness supplies.
Lab safety goggles for protecting your eyes from transocular bird flu infection by airborne viruses.
Lab Safety Goggles – Various Styles and Designs Available
Transocular (via the eye) infection is well researched and documented. All it takes is a cough or sneeze…. Consider eye protection another essential pandemic mitigation measure. These inexpensive goggles are used worldwide by health authorities and should be part of your preparedness supplies.The style or design is irrelevant. Shielding the eyes from the free movement of air is the primary consideration.
Latex gloves are essential for protection from H7N9 infections from touching contaminated surfaces, people, etc..
Gloves – Single-Use Latex Examination Gloves
As viruses can easily be spread via your hands, not to mention one of the primary avenues through which YOU become infected….. surgical gloves are a no-brainer. Additionally, the length of time that germs can survive on latex gloves varies and is dependent on a number of factors such as humidity level, temperature, type of surface and germs. The only logical solution is disposable gloves. Those offered via this link are inexpensive and can, in and of themselves, be a lifesaver.
Full-faced respirator masks provide the ultimate protection from airborne H7N9 virus.
Reusable Full-Faced Respirator Masks
These masks provide the ultimate in protection and can be used with either N95 or P100 filters. The most important feature of such masks is the near complete isolation of the eyes, nose and mouth. Eyes are protected from airborne particles and everything you breath is run through the disposable filters.
While this type of mask could be viewed as extreme, ask yourself the following question: If a member of your family becomes ill in an epidemic / pandemic situation involving a potentially deadly pathogen, are you confident enough to engage in their care without maximum protection for yourself?
DuPont Tyvek coveralls provide outstanding protection when used in the presence of infected individuals and surfaces.
DuPont Tyvek Coveralls – Multiple Sizes and Styles
DuPont Tyvek coveralls are made of flash-spun, high-density polyethylene which creates a unique, nonwoven material that can’t be abraded or worn away. The coveralls provide light-weight inherent barrier protection against hazardous dry particles and aerosols. If there is a possibility of working directly with sick individuals during a epidemic / pandemic type of situation, these inexpensive coveralls would be an excellent addition to your preps.
Tychem® QC Chemical Protection Coveralls
DuPont™ Tychem® C remains the best-in-class protective suit when handling biological and infective agents such as micro-organisms, bacteria, virus and fungi, as it meets the EN 14126 in the highest performance class. Alternatively, a hooded Tyvek® garment with taped seams, used in conjunction with Tychem® C accessories for enhanced protection of areas most exposed to potentially contaminated blood, sweat, and body fluids may be considered.
For more information, see this Ebola Protective Clothing PDF from DuPont
HEPA air filters remove 99.97% of particles passing through with a size of 0.3 micrometers or larger.
HEPA Air Filters – Multiple Sizes and Styles
High-efficiency particulate air, or HEPA, is a type of air filter. To qualify as HEPA by USGOV standards, an air filter must remove (from the air that passes through) 99.97% of particles that have a size of 0.3 micrometers.HEPA filters are critical in the prevention of the spread of airborne bacterial and viral organisms and, therefore, infection. Typically, medical-use HEPA filtration systems also incorporate ultra-violet lights to kill off the live bacteria and viruses trapped by the filter media. Some of the best-rated HEPA units have an efficiency rating of 99.995%, which assures a very high level of protection against airborne disease transmission.
Immune Boost Immune Boosting EpiCor
Medical experts agree, a healthy immune system could help one to avoid or survive viruses, even Ebola. No guarantee, of course, and while many products might help, one with exceptionally good science behind it and without any cytokine storm risk, is EpiCor. Check out the Customer Reviews there at Amazon, too!
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CDC GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS
CDC Main Ebola Page
Ebola – Case Definition
Ebola – Disease Information for Clinicians in U.S. Healthcare Settings
Ebola – Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients
Ebola – Guidance for Environmental Infection Control in Hospitals
Ebola – Safe Management of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in U.S. Hospitals
Ebola – Guidance for Monitoring and Movement of Persons w/ Ebola Virus Disease Exposure
Ebola – Guidance Handling of Human Remains of Ebola Patients (Hospitals and Mortuaries)
Ebola – Guidance for EMS Systems and 9-1-1 Public Safety Answering Points
Ebola – Contact Tracing Primer
Ebola – Guidance for Airlines
Ebola – Guidance for Air Medical Transport for Patients with Ebola Virus Disease
Ebola – Guidance for Specimen Collection, Transport, Testing, and Submission
Ebola – Advice for Colleges, Universities, and Students
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Ebola – Advice for Colleges, Universities, and Students
Ebola – Case Definitions of Ebola and Marburg Virus Diseases
Ebola – Clinical Management of Patients w/ Viral Hemorrhagic Fever
Ebola – Contact Tracing During an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease
Ebola – Laboratory Guidance for the Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease
Ebola – Surveillance in Countries w/ No Reported Cases of Ebola Virus Disease
Ebola – Ebola Event Management at Points of Entry
Ebola – Infection Prevention and Control Guidance Summary
Ebola – Toolkit for Behavioral and Social Communication in Outbreak Response
Ebola – Ebola and Marburg Virus Disease Epidemics: Preparedness, Alert, Control, and Evaluation
Ebola – WHO Risk Assessment: Human Infections w/ Zaïre Ebola Virus in West Africa
KNOW THE LAW
Ebola – Advice for Colleges, Universities, and Students
CDC – Legal Authorities for Isolation and Quarantine
CDC – Specific Laws and Regs Governing the Control of Communicable Diseases
CDC – Final Rules for Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate and Foreign
Executive Order (July 31, 2014) — Revised List of Quarantinable Communicable Diseases
FDA Drug Shortage Information
[ 1 ] Knust, B., Kuhar, D., Brown, L., What U.S. Hospitals Need to Know to Prepare for Ebola Virus Disease, [Transcript: CDC Conference Call with Clinicians], August 5, 2014 2:00 pm ET.
[ 2 ] Brosseau, L., Jones, R., Health workers need optimal respiratory protection for Ebola, Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP), Sep 17, 2014. .
[ 3 ] Hana M. Weingartl, H., Embury-Hyatt, C., Nfon, C., Leung, A., Smith, G., Kobinger, G., Transmission of Ebola virus from pigs to non-human primates, Nature – Scientific Reports, Article No.: 811, doi:10.1038/srep00811, Received: 25 April 2012, Accepted: 28 Sept 2012, Pub: 15 Nov 2012.
[ 4 ] The U.S. Army Medical Research Inst. of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), (January 13, 2006). Gene-Specific Ebola Therapies Protect Nonhuman Primates from Lethal Disease [Press Release]. Retrieved from < http://www.usamriid.army.mil >
[ 5 ] Warfield, K., Swenson, D., Olinger, G., Nichols, D., Pratt W., Blouch, R., Stein, D., Aman, J., Iversen, P., Bavari, S., Gene-specific countermeasures against Ebola virus based on antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers, PLoS Pathogens, Jan. 13, 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020001.
[ 6 ] U.S. Army, Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), 6th Edition, 2005.
[ 7 ] Johnson E, Jaax N, White J, Jahrling P., Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus., Int’l Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 1995 Aug;76(4):227-36.
[ 8 ] Jaax N, Jahrling P, Geisbert T, Geisbert J, Steele K, McKee K, Nagley D, Johnson E, Jaax G, Peters C., Transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory, Lancet. 1995 Dec 23-30;346(8991-8992):1669-71.
[ 9 ] Piercy TJ, Smither SJ, Steward JA, Eastaugh L, Lever MS., The survival of filoviruses in liquids, on solid substrates and in a dynamic aerosol, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2010 Nov;109(5):1531-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04778.x. Epub 2010 Jun 10.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR OF THIS PAGE
Steve Aukstakalnis (Awk-sta-call-niss) is President of AlertsUSA Inc, a risk management firm providing one of the nation’s most widely used national security threat, warning and incident notification services for mobile devices.
Educated in Physics and CS, Steve is a former research scientist and Program Director for the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Computational Field Simulation. He has served on the professional research staff at the University of Washington and the faculty of Mississippi State University.
Steve is an invited lecturer, instructor and researcher for such organizations as the Dept. of Defense, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, University of Michigan, Pepperdine University, Purdue, Dartmouth, Nat’l Taiwan University, the Smithsonian Institution and a host of other universities, corporations and government agencies across N. America and around the world.
Steve has authored two books as well as dozens of papers, magazine articles and technology reviews. His written work has served as background information and prep material for U.S. Senate hearings and is listed in the Congressional Record. Steve is currently under contract with Pearson – Addison Wesley for his third book slated for publication in 2015-16.
Steve has extensive international travel experience and has lived abroad in both SE Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. He spent a good portion of 2010-11 living and working out of a mud hut deep in the bush approx. 70 miles NNE of Monrovia, Liberia.
Steve has significant broadcast media experience and has appeared as a guest on radio and TV shows around the world, including The Larry King Show, Next Step, PBS, NPR, BBC, as well as most major news networks incl CNNABCNBCCBS.
Steve is available for media interviews and commentary on the topic of risk management and family preparedness in relation to the current Ebola outbreak. His extensive firsthand experience living and working in West Africa provides considerable depth and insight on origins of the outbreak and the unique cultural, environmental and topographic challenges faced by health authorities attempting to bring the situation under control. He can be contacted via firstname.lastname@example.org
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